The history of zirconium. Physical and mechanical properties.
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Physical and mechanical characteristics of zirconium
Cubic Zirconia is a durable, ductile and malleable metal, physical and chemical properties which are similar to the Titan. It has good corrosion and heat resistance. At elevated temperatures, finely divided metal can spontaneously ignite in air. It can not dissolve in acids or alkali.
Zirconium is used in the form of oxide or of zirconium dioxide. Zirconium oxide has low thermal conductivity and high melting point.
Physical properties of zirconium are:
- Density — 6530 kg/ m3;
- Melting point 1843 °C;
Mechanical properties of zirconium are:
- Limit strength (after annealing) — 330 MPa;
- Yield strength (after annealing) — 230 MPa;
- The modulus of elasticity 94,5 GPA;
- Poisson’s Ratio Is 0.34;
- Elongation at break (after annealing) — 32%
- Hardness Brinell (hardness converted from Vickers for 3000 kg load / 10 mm ball; sample after annealing) — HB 145;
Rockwell hardness, scale A (converted from hardness Vickers; sample after annealing) — 49;
Rockwell hardness scale (hardness converted from Vickers; sample after annealing) — 78;
The Vickers hardness for the annealed sample is 150;
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Thermal properties of zirconium the following:
- Coefficient of thermal expansion for the temperature range 20−100 ° C — 5,80 µm / m ° C;
- The thermal conductivity of 16.7 W / MK — 116;
Cubic Zirconia is made in the following foreign standards:
- ASTM B493;
- ASTM B494;
- ASTM B523;
- ASTM B550;
- ASTM B551;
- ASTM B653;
- ASTM B658;
- AWS A5.24.
Fabrication, machining and heat treatment
Zirconia should be processed carefully, since the zirconium powder and shavings are easily ignited. Consequently, during the cutting process requires the use of coolant and cutting produce with heavy feed and low cutting speeds. Zirconium is ductile and easily handled. However, to prevent wear of the deforming tool, you must use the proper lubricant.
The method of gas tungsten arc welding is best for welding zirconium. For welding zirconium requires proper protection otherwise it can lead to weak and brittle welds.
Below are the basic applications of zirconium:
- Jet engines;
- Knife blades:
- Nuclear reactors with water cooling;
- Equipment for chemical processing.
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