History of tin solder. Physical and mechanical properties.
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The origin of tin solders
Pike as a method of permanent connection of metal products known to mankind since ancient times. Already in Ancient Rome, Egypt and China soldering was used to produce complex jewelry and utensils. This is confirmed by numerous results of archaeological research. So, during the excavation of ancient Babylon was discovered the Golden vessels of gold, the handle to which were attached by soldering, and the ancient Roman water system of lead pipes were accustomed to drinking with tin-lead solders. Similarly cemented the elements of the water supply in Ancient Libya and Nubia. When the POI received the abrasion of the tin into a fine powder, which is easily melted. Later in it, to increase the strength of the solder, began to add lead and antimony elements, also well known to the artisans of the past.
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Properties and application of tin solders
Performance characteristics of solders determined by the strength of the solder joint formed, in particular, the ultimate strength of the shear. Characteristically, tin-lead solders containing from 18 to 40% tin, have higher values of resistance to shear than pure tin and lead separately.
Important technological characteristics of tin solders is their viscosity. It increases with the increase of lead in the alloy, while the strength of brazed joints obtained with the use of solders brands POS 18 (18% tin) and POS 40 (40% tin) is not much different between them.
In the practice of regular operations rations are important interchangeability of solders. Solders brand POS 50 when soldering parts that will not experience significant operational loads, it is often replaced by solder POS 40 POS or even 30.
The value and the durability of the solder joints increases with the increase of its hardness. More hard solders better resist frictional abrasion processes, so the chemical composition of tin solders are sometimes added silver (solder marks POSS). In particular, the strength of the solder joint silver solder brand Posse of 4−6 is equivalent to the solders brand POS 30.
As tin resists vibration better effort at connection of parts working under intensive dynamic loads, with shocks, use solders with a high tin content, for example, the POS 90 and POS 60.
In addition to brazing, tin solder, not the content of lead, are also used for tinning copper and copper alloys. Most of these solders are used when joining copper pipes and fittings. While the addition of silver to lead-free solder allows you to perform a quality connection copper tube with increased diameter.
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