Mechanical properties of hafnium
The percentage of hafnium godenovo GFI1 GOST 22517−77
|Fe||C||Si||Mn||Ni||Cr||N||Ti||Al||Zr||Ca||Mg||Hf + Zr|
|≤0.04||≤ 0.01||≤0.005||≤0.0005||≤0.05||≤0.003||≤0.005||≤0.005||≤0.006||≤ 1||≤0.01||≤0.004||more than 99.8|
The cost of hafnium 99% purity is about 780 dollars for 1 kg of 99% purity Hafnium (Hf) is a heavy refractory metal with a specific weight for 13, 31 g/cm3. The valence +4, +3, +1, boiling point = 4603 °C, t° melting = 2233 °C. the capture cross Section for thermal neutrons is about 100 barn, which is 2,000 times greater than zirconium — 0.2 barns, and therefore, zirconium is used in nuclear boilers .
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||178,49|
|Oxidation||4, 3, 1|
|Density [g/cm3]||For 13, 31|
|The melting temperature t°C||2233°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||25,1|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||23|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||575|
Ability to capture of the neutron causes the use of hafnium in the form of the adjusting rods of nuclear reactors. Thanks to its heat-resistance and high degree of refraction and HfO2 HfF4 is used in the manufacture of multilayer x-ray astronomical mirrors, fiber optics, night vision devices. Low work function of electrons allows the metal cathodes of the electron gun and a thermionic efficient generators.
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