Annealing, quenching and heat treatment of low alloy structural steel for welding constructions
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Types of heat treatment
Steels of this type are subjected to the following heat treatment:
Vacation. At a high tempering (the temperature of which is in the range 550…6500 C) structure of steel remains unchanged, but the reduced (or removed altogether) residual stresses that occur, particularly after welding. Other technologies — low and medium-vacation — used to fully or partially restore the original mechanical properties of the steel. Such leave can also reduce the likelihood of cracking and to lower the content of brittle metal hydrides, which may be contained in the surface layers;
Annealing. Annealing is used when the pre-heat treatment of steels, which contains a higher percentage of manganese and silicon, elements that reduce the plasticity of steel at the processing pressure;
Normalization. Surgery designed to correct structural defects of these steels, although it was used to improve subsequent machinability. Temperature normalization is determined by the percentage of carbon from 900…9400 C for steels with 0.1 to 0.2% carbon, up to 850…9000 C for steels containing 0,2…0,3% of carbon.
Hardening. Technology is used to give the material the necessary strength, hardness, durability against fatigue, and against corrosion. Post-weld annealing to restore the original level of most of the mechanical indicators, which are reduced by welding.
When mining technologies pay attention to the speed of cooling of the metal after quenching. This speed tend to do the minimum to avoid internal stress.
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Classification of steels by the heat treatment regimes
The conventional division of this category of steels into three groups:
Steel grades 10G2, 09G2S, 10KHSND. After welding in these steels are non-equilibrium structures, such as martensite, which lead to local hardening of the metal. Heat treatment of these steels is the high holidays, which increases the ductility and toughness;
Steel grades 15Г2АФ, 17Г2САФ or 12Г2ФАЮ. All of these steel in the quenching process to form fine carbide and carbonitride structure. Therefore, the best kind of heat treatment of such steels is considered thermomechanical treatment when the heating and subsequent plastic deformation occurs in a predetermined temperature range. Subsequent tempering is not required;
Steel 17G1S, 16GS, 30KHGSA. These steels are heat treatable, so after quenching may be some reduction in their strength characteristics, which is corrected by the introduction of the operation of the high holidays.
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