Annealing, quenching and heat treatment bearing steel
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Objectives of heat treatment of bearing steels
The considered steel must have high values of contact strength, fatigue strength, wear resistance and hardness. In view of this data, as hypereutectoid, have a low critical speed of hardening.
For the implementation of the tasks is the formation of thermally altered areas with high strength and performance characteristics bearing steel quenched in oil from temperatures of 800…8500 C, and further, for the purpose of removing internal stresses is subjected to release at temperatures of 160…220 °C for 1…2 hours.
Assigning types of quenching, remember that the eutectoid point ball-bearing steel offset diagram «iron-carbon» to the left for about 0,2…0,3%.
As a result of this, low tempering of steel to acquire hardness 60…64 HRC. The microstructure of properly hardened bearing steel is melkoigolchaty martensite on the background of uniformly distributed carbides.
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Peculiarities of heat treatment of various grades of bearing steel
With the increase of the percentage content of chromium in steel its hardness and wear resistance must be higher. The highest hardenability of all steel grades of this group differs steel SHKH15SG. However, it should be remembered, all bearing steels have poor machinability, and their machining is quite time consuming.
After heat treatment the bearing rings, the structure of its surface comprises tempered martensite and carbides, and the internal structure — pure martensite.
Special heat treatments relate to bearings that operate in corrosive environments, in particular in sea water or in aqueous solutions of acids. During heating of these bearings to a temperature of 450…5000 C, the heat treatment is carried out in the regimes of high-speed steel. To reduce the growth of carbide grains is used:
Annealing with the step heating at temperatures of 1000…10500 C;
Quenching in molten salts;
Annealing in an atmosphere of steam.
Vacation after quenching is performed at temperatures of 160…2100 C (smaller values correspond to smaller products).
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