Annealing, quenching and heat treatment relaxation-resistant steel
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Preliminary heat treatment
It is designed to increase the plasticity of the steels in question before their plastic deformation, and also to remove the thermal stresses caused by welding.
Annealing — the main type of preliminary heat treatment of heat-resistant and relaxation-resistant steels — can be realized in two varieties:
Annealing of the first kind, which is involved in heating the steel to a temperature below the austenite transformation line, holding at this temperature and then cooling at a certain rate determined by the chemical composition of the steel. As a result of this annealing, internal stresses are removed, and the structure and some of its properties are restored — strength, plasticity, electrical resistance. The temperature of such annealing, also called recrystallization, is relatively low, and does not exceed 200… .250 0 С. Also, similar annealing is used to eliminate dendritic liquation, but the heating temperature in this case is higher, and the exposure is maintained for a longer time. Such an annealing is called diffusion.
In the case of a second-order jig, structural changes occur only in steels capable of phase transformations in the solid state. In this case, when heated, the superfluid phases recrystallize, disappearing during their dissolution in the main phase. Upon subsequent cooling, they are released from the solid solution. Phase recrystallization, which is performed in the process of rapid cooling, is called normalization. As a result of normalization, the structure of heat-resistant and relaxation-resistant steels becomes less equilibrium.
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Basic heat treatment
Hardening is considered the main process of such processing. After hardening, heat-resistant and relaxation-resistant steels acquire the structure of a supersaturated solid solution. Cooling is performed at high speed, which must exceed the critical one. Only in this case it is possible to fix the single-phase state of such steels. If austenitic strings are formed as a result of quenching, then such processes are often called austenitization. In all cases, when a nonequilibrium structure is fixed during rapid cooling (for example, martensite), then the process is more correctly called quenching. Hardening increases the hardness and strength of steel.
In some cases, hardening of steel is accompanied by an increase in its fragility. Therefore, almost always after tempering should be a vacation. It is carried out using similar technologies used for annealing. Accordingly, at low temperatures, tempering is called low, and at high temperatures high.
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