The density and specific heat of high speed steel. Physical and mechanical properties.
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The steel data are instrumental, but are distinguished by their higher values of their hardness, strength and wear resistance. The composition and properties of high-speed steels are regulated by GOST19265−73.
High-speed steel refers to tool steels of special application. It is used in the following branches of machine building and metalworking:
High-speed machining by cutting of complex structural steels;
Cold reverse extrusion on presses with high degrees of deformation.
Large bearings, operated at constantly elevated temperatures.
Fast-cutting steel is ineffective with significant dynamic and shock loads: their relatively coarse-grained structure provokes the development of surface and deep cracks.
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A finished tool made of high-speed steels should have the following set of properties:
High surface hardness (for metal cutting tools, it can reach 68… 69 HRC, for the stamp — 65… 66 HRC);
Heat resistance at operating temperatures, which reach 300… 350 0 С;
Sufficient impact strength, which guarantees serviceability in the presence of bending stresses (although in this parameter high-speed steels lose instrumental alloyed);
High wear resistance in conditions of constantly acting contact friction stresses, including, and with a lack of process lubrication.
Achievement of such properties is facilitated by the chemical composition and microstructure of all grades of high-speed steels. In martensite quenching, a significant amount of high-strength tungsten carbides, as well as intermetallic compounds, is constantly present, and the structure itself is a ledeburite. It is obtained as a result of dispersion hardening after quenching and high tempering, during which all the carbide-forming elements — vanadium, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum — are carbide precipitates.
The necessary viscosity indexes (including, in the core layers of the tool), high-speed steels are acquired as a result of a reduction in grain size and the preservation of a high degree of dispersion of carbides. A favorable combination of the properties of viscosity and hardness is ensured by the self-hardening of the steels in question, for which reason they have a sufficiently high chromium content. Vanadium and nickel give these steels the necessary viscosity. However, the amount of nickel in high-speed steels is limited. As this element increases the percentage of residual austenite, for which high-speed steels have to be subjected to multiple tempering.
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