The density and specific heat of niobium and alloys of niobium
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Physical characteristics of niobium
Niobium is a rare, soft, malleable, ductile, gray-white metal. It has a body-centred cubic crystal structure, and physical and chemical properties it resembles tantalum. It needs to reside in a protective atmosphere when processed at moderate temperatures because it has a tendency to react with oxygen, carbon, Halogens, nitrogen, and sulfur. The metal is inert to acids at room temperature, but exposed to hot concentrated acids and especially alkalis and oxidizing agents.
Physical properties of niobium are given in the table:
|Number in the periodic table of elements||41|
|Atomic mass||92.91 gmol -1|
|Density||8400 kg/m3 at 20°C|
|Melting point||2410 °C|
|Boiling point||5100 °C|
|Radius van der Waals||0.143 nm|
|The radius of the ions||…To 0.069 0.070 nm|
|The number of available isotopes||14|
|The energy of the primary ionization||652 kjmol -1|
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Mechanical properties of niobium
In the table below.
|The tensile strength at room temperature||275 MPa|
|Elastic modulus||105 HPa|
|Brinell hardness number||736 NV|
|The Vickers hardness||1320 MPa|
The main thermophysical characteristics:
|Coefficient of thermal expansion in the temperature range 20…1000 With||7.3 µm/m°C|
|Coefficient of thermal conductivity||53.7 W/MK
Below are the applications of niobium:
The production of high temperature resistant alloys and special stainless steel;
In cutting tools chemical used niobium compounds such as niobium carbide. Other compounds, such as lithium niobate, are used in electro-ceramics. Niobium-tin alloys are used as superconducting magnets. Niobium is used in alloys of stainless steel, which are used in nuclear reactors, missiles, jets, pipes, cutting tools and welding rods.
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