The density and specific heat of the spring and spring steel. Physical and mechanical properties.
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General requirements for spring steel
The main ones are:
Increased values of elastic limit
Sufficient ductility (at least 4…8%), especially with the predominance of dynamic and alternating loads;
Increased hardenability, especially for large-size springs and leaf springs;
The ability to undergo various heat treatment conditions.
A characteristic feature of the chemical composition of such steels is increased to 0.5 m to 0,85% carbon content and large springs, and silicon in an amount up to 1,5…2,0%. An additional increase of resistance and durability is achieved by alloying with chromium and vanadium. Ordinary high-carbon steel, in particular steel type 65 are used only for production of low-duty parts.
Typical modes of heat treatment of spring steels are:
Quenching in oil with subsequent medium-temperature tempering to the presence of troostite in the structure;
Medium holiday to ensure adequate plastic characteristics.
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Operational properties of spring steels, depending on the steel grades listed in the table:
|Steel grade||Yield strength, MPa||The limit of temporary resistance, MPa||Elongation, %||The relative narrow cross-section, %||Impact strength, KGM/m2||The treatment|
|60S2||1150||1300||11…13||32…33||2.5||The quenching temperature of 820…8400 C oil next vacation at 5500 With|
|50KHFA||875||960||22||62||4,5||The quenching temperatures 850…8600 C oil next vacation with 6400 With|
60S2 steel grades and 70S3A commonly used for the manufacture of springs and springs of small size: no more than 16… 18 mm. while heating for hardening these steels reveals a tendency to increase grain size and carbon burnout reduces the fatigue limit.
For the manufacture of larger springs, with high performance use 60S2KHA steel, optional alloy chrome. However, the ductility of this steel is low, which creates difficulties with the deformation of the starting stock.
Spring-spring steel, in which a vanadium (50KHFA, 50ХГФ, etc.) are characterized by high viscosity and increased endurance limit. Springs made from these steels are used in severe operating conditions.
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