The density and specific heat case hardening structural steel. Physical and mechanical properties.
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The structure of the cemented layer
At temperatures exceeding 9110 C. there is a rearrangement of the cubic crystal lattice of low-carbon steels — from the face-centered body-centered she becomes. The carbon atoms are located inside the cube, forming a solid solution in the austenite at elevated temperatures and ferrite at normal. Solid solution of carbon in iron — cementite is the rest of the microstructures of case hardening steels. If such steel is to be heat treated, the solid particles of cementite are placed in a soft ferritic basis, and form the structure of perlite.
After carburizing, the carbon content in the surface layers increases significantly. This changes the structure of the steel in the subsurface layers it consists of fine pearlite and cementite lattice. By reducing the percentage content of carbon up to 0.8% of such hypereutectoid structure converted into a structure of pearlite, which is called the eutectoid, With a further decrease in the percentage of carbon in the ferrite structure appears, and it is called zaevtektoidnoj.
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The properties of the cemented layer
When the carbon content is SV the surface layer at the level of 0.9−1.1% of operating characteristics of low carbon steels — wear resistance and toughness — to achieve their maximum values. It is necessary to avoid cementite lattice (as a result of violations of technological modes of heat treatment), since it promotes embrittlement of steel.
If wrongly done cementation on the surface of the steel can be formed of a thin strip with a ferritic or ferritic-pearlitic structure. As a result, the hardness of the layer is reduced. In alloy steels, in addition to cementite formed carbides and other metals. Carbidopa elements are chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium. Do not form carbides, Nickel, manganese, cobalt.
The most important parameter of cemented layers is their high hardness, which reaches 60…64 HRC.
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