The use of titanium in electroplating
Galvanic method of coating metals have been most widely circulated. To increase the intensity and efficiency of production and technological processes of electroplating, the use of new electrolytes, increased temperature and increased current density. This requires construction materials and equipment complying with high requirements of corrosion resistance. Apart from improvements in technical performance, it is important to extend the maximum service life of equipment depends on quality of lining and structural materials. Despite the fact that materials for the safe operation of the equipment there is quite a lot, still failed to resolve the problems associated with the duration of its service life and durability. Lead in chromium and other acidic electrolytes, though has a chemical resistance, but are easily prone to mechanical failure. If lead lining gets damaged, the body bath is subjected to intensive corrosion.
Baths of steel, lined with vinyl plastic, resistant to acid electrolytes used in the process of Nickel plating, copper plating, galvanizing, etc. But if the temperature is too high, the vinyl sheets due to thermal expansion crack. This is because the thermal expansion coefficient of rigid PVC in six times more than steel. This leads to the violation of the integrity of the lining, especially in the area of welding seams, and later to the dissolution of the material from which made the bath, under the effect of corrosion and contamination of the electrolyte composition. Even getting a minimum amount of corrosive components (impurities of heavy metals) into the electrolyte can cause a sharp drop in the quality of the coating. To counter this, used for lining rubber. However, it also shows low efficiency due to the rapid aging and cracking of your coverage. In addition, the process of the lining and guerouane costly due to low adhesion to certain metals. All of the existing insulation and shielding technology for pendants using resistant to chemical attack rubber, perchlorovinyl lacquer or tape allowed the use of pendants for two to three months. Frequently change or repair the suspension is extremely time-consuming and economically disadvantageous event.
Corrosion resistance of titanium
Of all materials, demonstrating a high level of corrosion resistance in most electrolytes, the most suitable for use are the titanium alloys. Titanium is known for its resistance to the corrosive action of almost all electrolytes, alkaline, slightly acidic and sour character. It is stable in the pickling solution containing 10% H2 SO4 at a temperature of 75 °C, but at higher concentrations up to 18−20% starts to corrode. If we add in an electrolyte of nitric acid or its salts as inhibiting additives, you can prevent the process of corrosion of titanium. In this case, the formation of the oxide film on the metal surface, which prevents its dissolution. Titanium begins to corrode also in electrolytes that contain hydrofluoric or barterisation acid. In all other cases, the use of titanium as a protective coating in electroplating is extremely promising.
The equipment for electroforming
To pre-treat and plating, used the bath, anode baskets, drums cathode, heating coils, suspension, heat exchangers, pipelines, filters, pumps, etc.
Bath of titanium, is designed for chrome plating, made of alloy VT1−0. This technology has long been used automobile plant «Kommunar», and a plant for the production of measuring instruments city of Zaporozhye. The use of titanium in the chromium plating baths to increase their service life five to seven times. When the Melitopol engine plant instead of the traditional baths of steel and lead were installed three baths from alloy VT1−0, in connection with the increase of the duration of their use and reduction of depreciation, the cost of the electrolyte and reduce the labor intensity and energy consumption has been significantly increasing annual income.
In electrolytes that are used in the processes of copper plating, Nickel plating, cadmium plating, brass plating, zinc plating and silver plating, titanium practically has no corrosion, in addition to solutions and barterisation hydrofluoric acid. In addition, it is desirable to use titanium in combination with environments that are fluoride ions due to the difference in corrosion rate when using the anode circuits and the current is switched off.
Replacement of baths, made of carbon steel, lined with vinyl plastic or lead, on a bath of titanium is suitable for the stabilization of the production process: reduce the frequency of ongoing maintenance work, maintain cleanliness of the electrolyte, increasing the quality of the coating, and most importantly — the ability to regulate temperature or acidic electrolyte balance. Resistance of titanium alloys the corrosive action in the above electrolyte gives the possibility of more than two times to reduce the wall thickness. This makes titanium tubs and bathtubs made of steel, lined with vinyl plastic, is almost identical in cost.
In the baths intended for Nickel plating, zinc plating and copper plating are three different types of anodes: electrolytic, cast and rolled. The latter is most prevalent, as they dissolve the most evenly, while electrolytic anodes have a more intensive dissolution and formation of sludge.
To minimize the harmful effects of sludge, the anodes are placed in special bags of «belting» or «chloride», which has previously been subjected to treatment with hydrochloric acid. In this case, the waste can only be achieved by twenty to thirty percent of the total weight of the anodes. The use of anode baskets made of titanium, is extremely promising. In 1959, the firm «Ford» has been developed and commissioned the first anode container made of titanium. Because of this greatly decreased the cost of maintenance of the equipment, and the duration of daily work has increased by four hours.
Anode baskets are designed to increase the overall productivity of a working installation. In addition to adding the anode material into the container, is not required to release the remaining solution from the bath. The anode material is consumed almost entirely, preserving the constancy of the density and maximum efficiency of its action. Since 1959, they are used for cyanide and acid copper plating, cyanide brass plating white, shiny Nickel plating. Introduction in a domestic production process of baskets made of titanium allowed to create completely soluble anode.
The use of anode baskets of titanium alloy VT1−0 to the Melitopol engine plant helped to significantly raise the annual economic indicator in the production of Nickel-plated parts used in power plants. The main indicator of the efficiency of this innovation is a wholly the use of Nickel anodes, whereas before the introduction of this technology was only used 70% of the anodes. In addition, there is no need to use copper hooks that were used to install new anodes, decreased rate of labor costs during the replacement of the anodes.
Zaporozhye plant «Kommunar» on the automated line electroforming managed to escape from the ratio of income and total consumption of the anodes of Nickel, in the future of a disused, which was 30%. Titanium basket from alloy VT1−0 has made possible a significant reduction in the consumption of anodes of Nickel and simplifying maintenance of baths for the adjustment of the electrolyte level.
The anode basket with special hooks for hanging are created from sheets of titanium with a thickness of 0.8−1 millimeter. The calculation of the cross section of hooks comes from the calculation of the lowest rates of Malovodnoe and current density, which is less than 1A/DM.
For a process of high-speed tinning used baskets made of titanium, which are pre-filled with granulated tin, acting as the anode. Such an anode material can significantly improve the performance of electrolytic tinning due to the increase in the active current density, which is distributed over the entire area of the anode in the basket.
The economic effect
Describes baskets made of titanium, designed in different configurations, has gained wide popularity in the processes of Nickel plating, tin plating, copper plating and galvanizing, as they allow you to fully use the anode material, and thus to save the expensive raw materials: Nickel, tin, copper, and others. Also possible is the use of ingots, granules, ingots of a primary material, which cost much less than their rolling anodic equivalents.
To achieve high-quality precipitation is the source of the metal is required to maintain a stable balance of temperatures during the galvanic process. Today is still often used heaters and coils of lead, leaded carbon steel, stainless steel. The problem is that after only two to three months they fail under the influence of aggressive chemical environment of the electrolyte and high temperature. If necessary in this case, the permanent repair works and replacements of the heaters occurs such an undesirable violation of the established temperature balance, thus increasing costs to operate the equipment.
The use of titanium in heat exchange equipment is more advantageous compared with the above materials. This explains the increasing popularity of titanium in Western production. So the English company «Dean Producti Incorporated» is engaged in production for own developments casinotitan panels used to heat the electrolyte. The American company «Imperial chemical Industrial» engaged in the production of titanium coils, and American society «Continet» produces titanium heat exchangers for heating of electrolytes of different types (even a calf). Due to the absence of corrosion products on the outer surface of the heat exchanger required performance of heat transfer is achieved while reducing the heating surface of up to 45%, which is a huge advantage.
Even with two times lower thermal conductivity than lead or steel, titanium gives you the possibility of creating tube heaters with much thinner walls, as it has a high corrosive and mechanical strength. This implies the equality of prices coils leaded carbon and stainless steel and equipment from titanium grades VT1−00 and VT1−0. Moreover, the use of titanium alloys can significantly reduce the operating costs of equipment, increasing the time of operation four to six times.
Even in conventional baths for chrome plating, coils of titanium will serve for many years. The plant «Kommunar» in Zaporozhye uses to heat the electrolyte in chrome plating heaters titanium 3 meter long and Ø 2.5 mm, which has replaced obsolete lead coils with a length of 7 m and Ø 6 mm. Over four years of operation of this type equipment gave invaluable economic benefits. Titanium heaters are also used in dozens of automatic lines Tambov mechanical plant.
Pendants and fixtures
Titanium is also widely used in creating pendants for anodizing parts made of aluminum and its alloys. So, a simple aluminum frame is extremely quickly susceptible to oxidation and begin to break down. To extend the average time of their operation for more than four to six weeks, the frame must be exposed to alkaline environment. This titanium frame in similar operating conditions, shows no signs of incipient fracture, even years later. Pendants titanium also showed their best qualities in the processes of tinning and galvanizing. They are not subject to corrosion, which prevents the loss of valuable material, to prolong service time of parts and reduce the cost of repairs.
Production of titanium suspensions and frames is easy. The only limiting caveat — it is prohibited to use connections, using soldering both hard and soft solders. It is undesirable to connect parts with bolts and rivets, as these connections can fail in the transmission of electrical current. Maximum reliability index demonstrates the connection using welding.
One of the British companies specialized in the manufacture of washing machines, uses in her technical Arsenal of more than sixty instruments made of titanium for anodizing aluminum parts, as well as over four hundred aluminum jigs tipped with titanium. To repair the galvanic suspension quite expensive, long and time-consuming. The use of titanium elements of production allows to minimize the number of such operations for repair. In addition, titanium for long term supports conductivity at a high level.
Experience in the use of
In Zaporozhye on electrical equipment plant and the plant «Kommunar», first used the suspension of aluminum in the processes of anodizing and electropositive aluminum parts. Then the period of operation suspension was made just one month. After the introduction in the production of suspensions of titanium this time managed to extend more than years. Quantitatively, this can be represented in the form of the ratio 15 titanium pendants pendants 816 is made of aluminum, which you must use within one year.
English firm «ICI» developing new projects and manufactures titanium pendants of varying complexity of design. After thousands of working cycles corrosion from Titan equipment of production is only a 0,025 from value of the cross section of the entire suspension.
The German company «Riedel», «Blasberg» and other intensively used pendants of different designs in electrolytes based on sulfuric acid (primarily during anodization). Most commonly used suspension of titanium or aluminum with titanium contacts. However zelenolistnoe designs are more successful to use.
Titan equipment used for the installation of ventilation systems, also helps in reducing operating costs and repairs, improves performance and prolongs the life of the equipment. Though the initial investment in the installation of a titanium ventilation system two to three times higher than the cost of a standard ventilation of steel, but titanium is qualitatively fulfills its function in five to six times longer. Zaporizhia automobile plant for more than one year successfully uses a titanium ventilation system.
When increasing the production capacity of the shops specializing in the coatings, you need to take greater care of the cleaning process discharged wastewater containing huge amounts of toxic components (acids and their salts), which are formed in the etching process of metals and their hydroxides by anodic cleaning. In baths of zinc plating, copper plating, cadmium-plating is a large number of metal alkaloids and toxic cyanide, the concentration of which should be less than 0.1 mg/l and the content of chromium in chronologicly and chrome baths should not exceed 0.5 mg/L.
For the treatment of wastewater from slag and toxins neutralization using special installation. In addition to these harmful substances, wastewater contains a lot of aggressive chemical compounds affect the condition of the sewage system and drainage system. In the case that sewage treatment plants being built or undergo major repair, the capacity to capture the waste substances, drain piping, pumping equipment and valves are recommended to be made from titanium. The use of this metal increases operational endurance and prolong the service time of the system equipment.
Such a system with a capacity of 10 cubic meters intended for the treatment of wastewater with high content of chromium and related compounds, built and for several years successfully operates in the transformer factory in the city of Zaporozhye. In this case, for all the time in the bath trap and the drain pipe was not observed a single case of corrosion.
Numerous experience with the application of titanium in the galvanic structures proves the feasibility of using titanium elements. It concerns the reliability, quality, duration of service and cost effectiveness of the use of this material. For use in the production of equipment made of titanium is a measure of the progressivity of the company, tracking its current trends and concerns about the efficiency, reduce the labor intensity, reduce the heavy maintenance work for staff, increase the quality of the coating, saving the electrolyte, water, electricity, steam, cycle time reduction production, increase the longevity of the equipment, improve working conditions and increase production standards.
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