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Scandium is a chemical element in the third group of the 4th period of the periodic table. It has an atomic number 21.
Scandium is a simple substance. It is a lightweight metal of silver color and yellow tingle.
The origin and receipt of scandium:
Mendeleev predicted this element and Swedish chemist L. Nilson opened it in 1879. This element named in honor of Scandinavia.
Significant resources of this element are in mineral carbon. There is a problem of scandium technological development and extraction during the processing of coal to liquid artificial fuel.
Physical properties of scandium:
There are two crystalline scandium models: with hexagonal lattice of α-Sc-type magnesium and cubic, body-centered lattice of β-Sc type, with a transition temperature of α ↔ β 1 336 ° C and scandium boiling point of 2837°C and melting temperature of 1541°C. Scandium is a soft metal with a purity of above 99.5% and is easy mechanically operated.
The scandium content in Earth's crust is 10 g/t. BY its physical and chemical properties this element is similar to lanthanum, yttrium and lanthanides. Scandium has a positive valence as its analogs: lanthanum, aluminum, yttrium with valence index 3. Due to this property it is not involved in the oxidation and reduction processes. As this element is diffuse it includes various minerals.
The main scandium carrier minerals are: 0,005-0,2% of cassiterite, up to 1% of Sc2O3-fluorite, 0-0,4% of wolframite, 0,46% of Sc2O3-thorianite, 0,0015-0,3% of ilmenorutil, 0.45% of samarskite, 0,0015-1,5% of xenotime, 1.17% of wiikite, Scandium beryl (bazzite 3-14,44%), 0.2% of beryl.
The usage of scandium:
Scandium is widely used in metallurgy, superhard materials, microelectronics, light sources, nuclear energy, laser materials in the manufacture of solar cells in medicine, in the production of fianites, refractory materials, phosphors, etc.
The scandium isotopes: The best positron source is the isotope of scandium 47, with a half-life up to 3.35 days.
Radioactive isotope 46 Sc with a half-life up to 83.83 days is used in the refining industry as a "mark" which serves the control of metallurgical processes for the treatment of cancer.
The main applications of scandium are aluminum-scandium alloys. Scandium alloys with aluminum provides additional toughness and durability. These alloys are used in the following rolling: wire rods, etc., in accordance with Specifications and State Standards.