Marking titanium alloys
The first letters of domestic alloys reflect the name of the company-developer Mark VT means «VIAM» on Titan, ON -. Experienced Titan, developed jointly VIAM and Salda Metallurgical Production Association -. In China, VSMPO titanium and technical alpha-alloys are marked with the letter TA. US-alpha titanium alloys are marked with the letter A.
The most pure titanium receive iodide or electrolytically. The content of impurities therein are:
|The percentage of impurities||FROM||N||Fe||Cr||Mn||Si||Zr||O||Ti|
|The iodide method||0,001||0,002||0,002||0,002||0,003||0,005||0.05||0.03−0.06||99.87|
|Electrolytic method||0,008||0,004||0,009||0.073||0,003||0,002||<0.001||not more than 0.037||99.837|
A further basis for the production of titanium alloys serves as titanium sponge, the resulting magnesium-thermal method. Titanium sponge — porous gray matter with a bulk density of 1.5−2.0 g / cm 3, and very high viscosity.
The role of Al in titanium alloys
Titanium alloys are classified in order of increasing aluminum content. It is also important for the titanium grades, like carbon steels. Aluminum is easier to titanium in the alloy so it increases the modulus of elasticity and specific strength with little loss of ductility. With the increase in its proportion of titanium increases the heat resistance and reduced tendency to hydrogen embrittlement, but it increases the sensitivity to salt corrosion. Therefore, upon contact with the salt solution in the temperature range 250−550 ° C, with the smallest mark selected percentage of aluminum. To improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy is added to palladium, platinum and ruthenium. AL also reduces thermostability. According Rosenberg alpha titanium alloys retain thermostability at AL content to 9%.
BT1−0 relates alpha alloys, alpha-saturated stabilizers (AL, Ga, In, and nonmetals of: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen), which increase the polymorphic transformation temperature of titanium. As is known, to t ° 882,5 ° C retains titanium hcp structure (alpha-phase), and from 882,5 ° C to the melting point — bcc structure (beta phase). In addition to the alpha-alloys, there are pseudo alfa-alloys (OT4−0, OT4−1, OT4 — rich of Mo), alpha + beta alloys (VT6 VT6S, VT6kt — saturated the V), a transitional type alloys (VT22, VT22I, VT30) pseudo-beta alloys (BT-35, VT32) and beta alloys (4201).
|VT1−00 (very high purity)||0.1||0.04||0.05||0.08||0.2||0.8|
|BT1−0 (high purity)||0.12||0.04||0.07||0.1||0.2||1.2|
This brand of high-purity titanium — lightweight refractory metal gray, t ° mp = 1668 ° C. It is characterized by small coefficient of thermal expansion, low density (4.505 g / cm 3), very high plasticity 20 — 80%, which allows to receive details of any shape. Due to the surface oxide film, he has exceptional corrosion and chemical resistance, which is much higher than the resistance of stainless steels in sea water for 4000 years dissolve layer of titanium equal to the thickness of the leaf paper writing.
High labor intensity of production. Melting titanium is only possible in a vacuum or inert gas, because liquid titanium actively interacts with all atmospheric gases. VT1−0 bad processed by cutting, but its strength is about 390−540 MPa — is not considered high enough. For comparison AT6 strength or VT20 1000 MPa. With decreasing aluminum content decreases specific strength and heat resistance of the alloy and increases susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement.
Heat resistance, corrosion resistance, lightness and high plasticity VT1−0 makes it an ideal material for the production of pipes, forged and cast parts in the rocket and aircraft industry (45−48%), chemical industry, shipbuilding and energy (20%). The growth of consumption of titanium in the aviation demonstrates the following table.
|Aircraft of the twentieth century (Ti in% by weight of the airframe)||Aircrafts of the XXI century (Ti in% by weight of the airframe)|
Slight thermal expansion coefficient makes it possible to use VT1−0 in construction, where it is combined with glass, stone and other materials. Unlike most metals VT1−0 has significant electrical resistance, which in combination with a non-magnetic makes it difficult fungible in electronics and electrical engineering. It is harmless to humans, making use of medicine — dentistry and traumatology.
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