Cobalt denoted by Co (lat. Cobaltum), includes side subgroup of the eighth group of the 4th period of the periodic table, the atomic number 27. It’s metal with a silvery sheen. A thin layer of surface oxides can give it different shades.
|Atomic number||Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g/cm3]||The melting temperature t°C||The boiling point of t°C||The heat of fusion kJ/kg|
|No. 27||58,933||-1, 0, 2, 3||8,9||1495°C||2870°C||15,48|
The name of the metal comes from him. Kobold — cave-dwarf. Arsenic cobalt ore in the kiln emit toxic fumes AsO. Frequent poisoning in the smelting of silver ancient Scandinavians attributed to the machinations of the evil mountain spirit and gave the ore its name. Swedish chemist G. Brandt in 1735 was extracted from ore unknown metal called cobalt. He also found that derivatives of cobalt gives glass a blue tint — it was used by the ancient Assyrians in the construction of temples.
Cobalt — hard metal, has 2 modifications: α -modification stable at a temperature from ambient to 427 °C, and β-modification — (face-centered cubic lattice) is at a temperature from 427 °C to 1120 °C. Cobalt is ferromagnetic, the Curie point of 1121 °C.
- Alloying with cobalt increases heat resistance and improves the mechanical properties of the steel, transforming it to a tool (cutters, drills, etc.)
- For permanent magnets used alloy containing 50% cobalt plus chromium or vanadium.
- The magnetic properties of the alloys of cobalt are used in the apparatus of magnetic recording, and in the cores of motors and transformers.
- Cobalt applied as catalyst.
- The cobalt silicide is an excellent thermoelectric material for thermoelectric generators with high efficiency.
- Cobalt lithium — a highly effective positive electrode in the production of lithium batteries.
- Radioactive cobalt-60 used in gamma radiography and medicine. 60Co is used as a source of nuclear energy.
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