Magnesium is the 12th element on the periodic table of Mendeleev, where indicated by the symbol Mg. It is a silvery-white, extremely light metal. Under normal conditions does not practically change in the air — it protects against oxidation of a thin surface oxide layer.
|Atomic number||Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g/cm3]||The melting temperature t°C||The boiling point of t°C||The heat of fusion kJ/kg|
The discovery of magnesium is associated with mineral water The source in England. There in 1695 of water evaporated salt (it was magnesium sulphate) with a bitter taste and laxative effect. Pharmacists immediately called her Epsom salts. Pure metal was isolated only after two centuries, in the early twentieth century.
The most magnesium-rich United States, Russia, Norway and China. Brucite and magnesite 1/3 is composed of a magnesium salt, and keseric, epsomite, dolomite — 1/6. Magnesium salts are readily soluble. To 0.13% of the Mg contained in seawater. Magnesite brought from the depths of geothermal waters. Especially rich in salts of magnesium deposits of sedimentary lakes. Deposits of sedimentary salts carnallite are found everywhere. Hot springs are also associated deposits of dolomite. Their reserves are huge, Most of them were formed millions of years ago by sediment.
Magnesium is an important electrolyte in the regulation of metabolism. As found by doctors, application of bischofite treat disorders of musculoskeletal system, primarily the spine and joints, are indispensable for rehabilitation of consequences of traumas.
Technical magnesium is produced by electrolysis of molten mixture of salts of chlorides of magnesium, sodium and potassium. Such metal is contaminated with impurities and needs further purification by electrolytic refining, remelting in the vacuum, along with special fluxes. Often use sublimation in a vacuum. Clean refined magnesium 99.999% and above. Another thermal method, based on reduction of MgO with silicon or coke at high temperature. So silicon makes it easy to distinguish magnesium from dolomite. Price of magnesium ingot is about 3 $ /kg.
Mg easily dissolves in acids with evolution of hydrogen. Alkali does not affect. He quickly corrodes in sea water and solution of 3% sodium chloride, forming Mg… hydroxide is resistant to alcohols (except methyl), gasoline, kerosene, freon and mineral oils. This is a vigorous reducing agent, they are displaced less active elements from compounds. It recovers other metals from solutions of salts at room temperature. When bulbs it takes away the oxygen in the alkalies, and oxides, with magnesium powder to obtain a simple connection. This valuable feature can be used for obtaining titanium.
Mg is very light, its density at 20 °C of about 1.7 g/cm3, melting point is 651 °C, boiling point: 1103 °C. Its surface is covered with a film of oxide, which is at 623 °C is destroyed, then the magnesium is burned. Foil and powder Mg normal ignite with a match and burn not only the air but also in carbon dioxide. Bright magnesium flash, with its spectrum, even UV rays, until the early twentieth century was used in the shootings. This property is to burn a dazzling bright flame is indispensable in the lighting and the fireworks, tracer bullets and shells, incendiary bombs. In summer camps it was added to the fires that ignited during opening or closing shifts. Such fires scattered sparks. The mixture of powders of magnesium and potassium permanganate — explosive.
Magnesium is a very lightweight malleable metal. It is well bent, stamped, rolled, drilled and cut. However, it is fragile and not suitable for loaded structures. For this purpose, magnesium alloys with zinc, aluminum, beryllium, manganese, titanium or rare earth elements… They are resistant to corrosion and have high specific strength. These alloys get bestlolitas melting in an inert atmosphere. Due to this homogeneous structure, characterized physico-mechanical stability. These alloys have an extremely wide sphere of application.
Percentage composition of magnesium alloys (GOST 2581−78)
|Mcr1n3||-||-||0,2−0,5||0,4−1,1 Zr — 2,6−3,2 Nd||0,02||0,02||0,01||0,004||0,01|
Today, magnesium has become the basis of the lightest structural materials. Alloy of aluminum and magnesium which have large specific strength, relevant in the modern aeronautical and automotive industries. Of this alloy produced the most light pieces of aircraft, helicopters and airships. This provides a significant advantage when developing new models. This alloy has become the basis of parts of the gliders, fairings, ailerons, cabin doors, chassis, control levers, building devices and pumps, oxygen and fuel tanks. Details of magnesium alloys by reducing weight reduces fuel consumption and increases the efficiency of modern cars. Of magnesium alloys to produce automotive crankcase parts shock absorbers, pumps and devices, covers tanks. Magnesium rims for wheels add not only light and robust but also stylish appearance. In instrumentation, magnesium is required for rental of housing, binoculars, mobile phones, cameras. Used this steel in the manufacture of electric batteries, and minor absorption of thermal neutrons, became the basis of the use of magnesium in the production of fuel rod cladding.
Magnesium salts (bromide and perchlorate) are used in modern powerful batteries that have high capacity and discharge voltage. Magnesium-sulfur batteries are still under promising development. Magnesium perchlorate is also used for deep drying of gases. MgO is part of the refractory for the production of crucibles and the lining of industrial furnaces. Synthetic single crystals of MgF2 are the basis of special optics.
Buy at best price
In stock, LLC «Electrocentury-steel» a wide range of metal products that will satisfy any customer. Offer advantageous conditions of supply of articles of magnesium and its alloys for wholesale and retail buyers. On our website you will find all the necessary information, offers experienced managers-consultants, who are always ready to help with the selection. Product quality is guaranteed by strict observance of the norms of production at all stages. Delivery times are minimal. For wholesale orders there is a reduced discount