Titanium is a lightweight, silvery metal element No. 22 of group IV of the periodic system. Opened in the end of XVIII century independently from each other an Englishman, William Gregor, and the German chemist Clarocom. Already at that time Titan dubbed «the metal of the future», so extraordinary qualities he demonstrated. Its strength is like the strength of Damascus steel, it is much lighter than other metals, resistant to corrosion and action of aggressive media, easily forged and stamped. Its corrosion resistance is higher than that of alloys of noble metals, and low specific weight comparable to aluminum. Low creep of titanium is similar to stainless steel, and the elongation and ductility — level indicators copper. It retains its quality from -250°C to t° red heat steel. Exceptional specific strength, durability, resistance to heat — made it an indispensable material in the cutting edge industry of the XXI century.
|The temperature at which the obtained data the features of t°C||20°C|
|The linear thermal expansion coefficient α [1/Deg]||Of 8.2×10−6|
|The modulus of elasticity of 1 kind, E [MPa]x10−5||1,12|
|Specific heat at 20 °C [kJ/(kg·deg)]||0,586|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||300,173|
|Coefficient thermal conductivity), l [W/(m·deg)]||Of 8.37|
The primary method of obtaining titanium — recovery of TiCl4 in conditions of high temperatures with sodium or magnesium. Hot titanium reacts easily with atmospheric gases, so the main purpose of production technologies is to minimize the contact of hot metal with N2, O2, H2. The main drawback is the high cost and energy consumption of the process. In metallurgy titanium alloys are classified according to the configuration of crystal lattices: β-state (in the form of a cube), α-state (in the form of a hexahedron) and α+β (mixed state). According to the method of processing the alloys are divided into casting and wrought.
Titanium mill products are stored in covered warehouses or under the shed providing adequate protection against mechanical and other damage.
Based on titanium to produce alloys for rocket and aircraft industry. Lightness and heat resistance of titanium will be used in the manufacture of heating equipment. He is in demand in the cryogenic industry, because it retains high ductility and toughness in extreme cold. From titanium alloys produce the most important parts for shipbuilding, including hull and propellers underwater vessels. Its biological inertness allows you to create structural materials for reconstructive surgery and use in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Titanium body armor, and use in modern design. Due to biological inertness, titanium is used to create surgical tools and prostheses.
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