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Gadolinium in the periodic system is a chemical element of third group. It has the atomic number 64 and atomic weight of 157.25. It belongs to the lanthanides.
The element was named after the Finnish chemist Gadolin. The element was opened in 1880 by Jean de Marignak, who proved the presence of a new element in the mixture of oxides of rare earth elements.
The properties of gadolinium:
Content of gadolinium in oceanic water is 2.4 · 10-6 mg/l, and in the crust of 8 g / t (at Taylor).
The gadolinium is produced by the reduction of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or calcium fluoride (GdF3). Gadolinium compounds are obtained by fractionation of rare earth oxides of metals.
The usage of gadolinium:
One can talk about gadolinium as a modern technological material for a long time. This item opens a new area of its application. This is stipulated not only by its nuclear-physical properties, but also high degree manufacturability. In most cases gadolinium is used in nuclear power engineering and electronics.
Gadolinium-cobalt-iron alloy allowed creating new information media with high recording density. By this element it became possible to grown single-crystalline gadolinium – Galium garnet. Also gadolinium is used in the production of solid-state lasers used in medicine and for stone and metal radiation processing.
Gadolinium is used for the protection of thermal neutrons due to high ability to take the neutrons from all elements. In this case, the gadolinium is indispensable in the management of nuclear reactor and for neutron protection. Also oxide gadolinium is used for melting of glass, which absorbs thermal neutrons.
Gadolinium hexaboride is used for cathode production of powerful electron guns and X-ray machines.
Iron and gadolinium alloy is a very capacious hydrogen accumulator that’s why it is widely used in a hydrogen car.
Gadolinium -153 is basically used in medicine during the osteoporosis diagnosis.
At the treatment of liver, when the Kupffer blockade is necessary gadolinium chloride is used. Gadodiamid is a contrast medicine which also contains gadolinium.
An alloy of nickel and gadolinium is used in the containers manufacture used for storage of radioactive waste. The great interest has single crystal alloy of gadolinium - terbium. It is used in the manufacture of magnetic refrigerators.
Rolled products of the alloys doped with gadolinium are produced in the form of bars, wire, and sheet in accordance with the technical specifications. State Standard 23862.13-79-sets this standard by fluorescent method for determining impurities of gadolinium oxide. State Standard 23862.5-79 is identified by spectral method for determination of gadolinium oxide.