Germanium brand, chemical structure
Germanium — the element of the 4th group of the periodic system D. I. Mendeleev, where indicated as Ge. It is a lightweight, silvery metal. Atomic number 32, atomic mass 72,59. UD. the weight of 5.33 g/cm3. Opened in 1886 the German scientist Winkler Named the element in honor of his homeland — Germany. This element refers to multiple. In nature, it is not found in a free form, but only as an impurity in sedimentary rocks, ores of tungsten, Nickel, silicates, coal, thermal waters, peat. Accumulates in algae.
|The atomic number of Ga||Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g/cm3]||The melting temperature t°C||The boiling point of t°C||The heat of fusion kJ/kg|
|No. 32||72,59||3||Of 5.33||937°C||2830°C||36,8|
Physical and chemical properties
This is a fairly brittle metal, up to 550 °C is not amenable to hot and cold pressure treatment. Covered with the oxide film, it is in normal conditions, is sufficiently resistant to the action of water, air, hydrochloric acid, interacts weakly with caustic alkalis, but dissolves in alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide and Aqua Regia. Has a valence of +2 or +4. Chemical compounds with a higher valence more stable. Most used the dioxide, GeO2.
Get germanium using by-products of processing of ash from coal combustion, ore of non-ferrous metals etc. In a metallurgical way it is smelted at a temperature from 800 to 1800 °C. To obtain a technical Germany in quartz columns it is cleaned with hydrochloric acid, diffusion, aimed at crystallization and other methods. Determine germanium by using emission spectral analysis. It also detects the presence of the formation of a bright yellow German-molybdenum acid. Technical conditions and GOST 16 153−80 normalized production of monocrystalline germanium, which is used in semiconductor devices, and for other needs of the national economy.
Germanium belongs to the semiconductors that are used in the form of high-frequency single crystals for the manufacture of transistors, diodes, photoresistors and photodiodes. From this metal are Hall sensors, the lenses of x-ray spectroscopy, resistance thermometers, etc. In a denture and jewelry technique also used this element to the high hardness and strength. Some alloys of germanium are used as solders of anti-corrosion coatings. Impurity dioxide GeO2 used in alloys used in rolled metal manufacture of wire, sheets, rods, etc.
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