Terbium brand, chemical structure
Terbium is a chemical element № 65 of the third group of table D. I. Mendeleyev, in which he is designated as Tb. The atomic weight of 159. It is silver metal of some lanthanides. The honor of its discovery belongs to two scientists. The Swedish chemist Mosander in 1843 by the decomposition were able to identify yttrium, terbium and erbium. And only sixty years later the French scientist Urbain Jean was able to obtain pure terbium. The content of this element in the lithosphere is 4.3 g/t Industry today gets metal terbium from a mixture of rare earth elements, restoring metallothermic method. Determination of impurities of oxides of terbium normalizes GOST 23862.15−79.
Melting temperature of 1356 °C, t° boiling point 3227 °C. Ood. weight under normal conditions almost 8.3 g/cm3. In normal conditions the metal is stable enough it a-modification has a hexagonal structure of the type Mg, stable up to t° to 1287 °C, and cubic b-modification (similar in type to the structure of a-Fe) with further increase of temperature. Under pressure 1ГПа get a modification of the terbium ions with the trigonal lattice. In water at the boiling point of the formed Tb (OH)3. Mineral acids can easily dissolve the terbium ions with the formation of salts. If salts of terbium calcined in air at t° 800°-1000°C, it is possible to allocate the oxide Tb4 O7. Dioxide TbO2 is formed by thermal decomposition of Tb (OH)3. The most stable trivalent terbium ion. Tetravalent ion exists only in the hetero-prisoedinenii.
|Atomic number||Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g/cm3]||The melting temperature t°C||The boiling point of t°C||The heat of fusion kJ/kg|
|No. 65||159||3, 4||8,23||1356°C||3023°C||389|
Laser optics, manufacture of phosphors, thermoelectric, and magnetic materials, magnetostrictive alloys, semiconductor computer components. Iron terbium alloy magnetostrictive considered the best alloy to date and is the basis of powerful ultrasonic transducers, as well as giant servomotors, for example, large telescopes. In addition, use of experimental compounds of terbium, for example, single crystal titanate Tb with a huge magnetostriction.
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