Cobalt — is denoted by symbol Co (lat. Cobaltum), is included in side subgroup of eighth group of 4th period of periodic table, atomic number 27. This is a metal with silver tint. A thin layer of surface oxides can give it different shades.
|Atomic number||Atomic (molar) mass g/mol||Oxidation state||
|Melting temperature t°С||Boiling temperature t°С||Heat of Fusion kJ/kg|
|№ 27||58,933||-1, 0, 2, 3||8,9||1495°С||2870°С||15,48|
Name of metal comes from german Kobold — cave gnome. Arsenic-containing cobalt ores release toxic AsO fumes during firing. Ancient Scandinavians attributed frequent poisoning during smelting of silver to wiles of evil mountain spirit and christened these ores by his name. Swedish chemist G. Brand in 1735 isolated an unknown metal from ore, which he called cobalt. He also found that cobalt derivatives give glass blue color — this was used by ancient Assyrians in construction of temples.
Cobalt — hard metal, has 2 modifications: α-modification is stable at t° from room temperature to 427 °C, and β-modification is (face-centered cubic lattice) — at t° from 427 °C to 1120 °C. Cobalt — ferromagnet, Curie point 1121 °C.
- Doping with cobalt increases heat resistance and improves the mechanical properties of steel, turning it into a tool (make cutters, drills, etc.).
- For permanent magnets, an alloy containing up to 50% cobalt, plus vanadium or chrome, is used.
- Magnetic properties of cobalt alloys are used in magnetic recording equipment, as well as in cores of electric motors and transformers.
- Cobalt is applicable as catalyst.
- Cobalt silicide is excellent thermoelectric material for thermoelectric generators with high efficiency.
- Cobalt lithium — highly efficient positive electrode in production of lithium batteries.
- Radioactive cobalt-60 is used in gamma flaw detection and medicine. 60Со used as source of nuclear energy.
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