Germanium brand, chemical structure
Germanium is element of 4th group of periodic system of D. I. Mendeleev, where it is designated as Ge. It is light silver metal. Atomic number 32, atomic mass 72.59. Beats weight 5.33 g/cm³. It was discovered in 1886 by German scientist Winkler. Named element in honor of his homeland — Germany. This item belongs to scattered. In nature, it does not occur in free form, but only as impurity in sedimentary rocks, nickel tungsten ores, silicates, coals, thermal waters, peat. Accumulated in algae.
|Atomic number Ga||Atomic (molar) mass g/mol||Oxidation state||
|Melting point t °С||Boiling point t °С||Heat of fusion kJ/kg|
Physical and chemical properties
It is fairly brittle metal; up to 550 °C is not amenable to hot and cold pressure treatment. Covered with oxide film, under normal conditions, it is quite resistant to water, air, hydrochloric acid, weakly interacts with caustic alkalis, but dissolves in alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide and in aqua regia. Has valency of +2 or +4. Chemicals with higher valency are more stable. Most used is GeO2.
Get germanium, using by-products of processing, ashes from burning coal, non-ferrous metal ores, etc. In metallurgical method, it is smelted at t° from 800 to 1800 °C. To obtain technical germanium in quartz columns, it is purified using hydrochloric acid, thermal diffusion, aimed at crystallization and other methods. Germanium is determined using emission spectral analysis. Its presence also detects formation of bright yellow germanomolybdic acid. Specifications and GOST 16 153−80 standardize production of single-crystal germanium, which is used in semiconductor devices, as well as for other needs of national economy.
Germanium refers to semiconductors that are used in form of high-frequency single crystals for manufacture of transistors, diodes, photoresistors and photodiodes. This metal is used to produce Hall sensors, X-ray spectroscopy lenses, resistance thermometers, etc. This element of high hardness and strength is also used in dental prosthetics and jewelry. Some germanium alloys serve as solders for anti-corrosion coatings. Impurities of GeO2 are used in alloys used in metal rolling — manufacture of wire, sheets, rods, etc.
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