a brief description of
Vanadium — element of V-th transition group of the periodic table, which is designated as V. Vanadium Powder — gray, in a compact form — a steel shade ductile metal. It is chemically active, easily drawn into a thin filament at ambient temperature and rolled into a foil. The admixture of nitride or carbide improves its hardness and brittleness.
Physical properties of vanadium
|The atomic (molar) mass g / mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g / cm3]||Melting point t ° C||The boiling point of t ° C||The heat of vaporization kJ / mol|
|50.94||0, 2, 3, 4, 5||6.11||1887 ° C||3377 ° C||460|
At ordinary temperatures the metal vanadium retains luster even in the wet condensate. Vanadium powder upon heating readily reacts with chlorine, sulfur, O 2, and H 2 is capable of dissolving up to 42%. In the air by heating the powder changes color, covered with oxides of various oxidation and burning, converted to V 2 O 5. During heating in the atmosphere of N 2 powder forms nitrides VN 2, VN, V N 3, and forms tetrachloride, VCl 4, vanadium Compact resistant to chemical reagents in excess chlorine. It is dissolved only strong acids: HF, HN0 3 or aqua regia. Metal stable in alkaline solutions, but it was dissolved molten alkali. Carbon-containing gases when heated to form a carbide VC.
First, vanadium is heated in vacuum to 200 ° — 250 ° C, and then in H 2 environment, which is created by the thermal cleavage of titanium hydride transfer to an unsaturated state. (Unsaturated titanium hydride later used for absorbing hydrogen released vanadium hydride powder in the dehydrogenation). Compact vanadium activated at t ° 600 ° — 780 ° C, the hydrogenation proceeds at t ° 50 ° — 200 ° C, when vanadium hydride is ground into a powder starts dehydration at 650 ° — 780 ° C with a gradual reduction in pressure to 0,05 mm. absorption of Hg and H 2 liberated, unsaturated titanium hydride. The method allows to obtain high-purity vanadium powder. The installation consists of heat-resistant steel retorts, backing pump, pipeline transport and evacuation of H 2 with isolation valves, electric furnaces for heating the retorts. as well as measuring and control sensors.
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