Titanium is a light silver metal, element number 22 of the IV group of the periodic table. It was opened at the end of the 18th century independently by the Englishman W. Gregor and the German chemist Klaproth. Already at that time, titanium was dubbed «the metal of the future», so extraordinary qualities he demonstrated. Its strength is similar to the strength of Bulat, while it is much lighter than other metals, resistant to corrosion and to the action of aggressive media, easily forged and stamped. Its corrosion resistance is higher than that of noble metal alloys, and its low specific weight is comparable to aluminum. Low creep of titanium is similar to stainless steel, and tensile properties and ductility — at the level of indicators of copper. It retains its qualities from -250 ° C to t ° red-hot steel. Exceptional specific strength, durability, heat resistance — made it an indispensable material at the forefront of the industry of the XXI century.
|The temperature at which these characteristics are obtained t ° С||20 ° С|
|The coefficient of linear temperature expansion α [1 / Grad]||8.2x10−6|
|Density [g / cm3]||4.45|
|The modulus of elasticity of the first kind, E [MPa] x10−5||1.12|
|Specific heat at 20 ° C [kJ / (kg · hail)]||0.586|
|Thermal conductivity K [W / (m · K)]||300,173|
|Cco thermal conductivity coefficient), l [W / (m · deg)]||8.37|
The main method for producing titanium is the reduction of TiCl4 under high temperature conditions with sodium or magnesium. Hot titanium readily reacts with atmospheric gases, so the main goal of production technology is to minimize the contact of hot metal with N2, O2, H2. The main disadvantage is the high cost and energy intensity of the process. In metallurgy, titanium alloys are classified by lattice configuration: β-state (in the form of a cube), α-state (in the form of a hexahedron), and α + β (a mixed state). According to the method of processing, the alloys are divided into casting and wrought.
Titanium rolled products are stored in covered warehouses or under a shed, where adequate protection is provided against mechanical and other types of damage.
On the basis of titanium they produce alloys for rocket production and aircraft building. The lightness and heat resistance of titanium allow it to be used in the manufacture of thermal equipment. It is in demand in the cryogenic industry, since it retains high plasticity and strength in extreme cold conditions. Titanium alloys produce the most important parts for shipbuilding, including hulls and propellers of underwater vessels. Its biological inertness makes it possible to create structural materials for reconstructive surgery and use it in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Titan make body armor and use in modern design. Due to its biological inertness, titanium serves to create surgical instruments and prostheses.
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