Gallium brand, chemical structure
Gallium in the periodic system of chemical elements D. I. Mendeleev designated as Ga. It is located in the main sub-group 3-group 4 period. Atomic number 31. It is ductile and soft metal with a silvery-white color with a bluish tinge, and has two isotope. The name of the element gave Afmily Paul Lecoq de Babajan, which offered to name the new metal after his homeland — Gaul.
|The atomic number of Ga||Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g/cm3]||The melting temperature t°C||The boiling point of t°C||The heat of fusion kJ/kg|
Crystalline gallium has a number of polymorphic modifications. Of them is thermodynamically stable only one. Others are unstable. In a solid state at 20 °C the density of gallium 5,904 g/cm3. Liquid gallium has a density of 6,095 g/cm3. That is, during solidification, the volume of gallium increases. Boiling point = 2230 °C, t° melting point of 29.8°C. the liquid gallium Feature — broad temperature range (from 30 to 2230°C). It also has a low vapor pressure at the temperature of 1100−1200°C. In the solid and liquid specific electrical resistivity of this metal is the same.
Properties of gallium close to the aluminum. From oxidation protects the metal surface oxide film. Gallium reacts with hot water and superheated steam forms a compound of hydrate of an oxide of gallium. At a temperature below room gallium actively interacts with mineral acids to release N2 and form salts. This metal does not react with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, bromine and silicon. At high temperatures it is capable of destroying various materials, having a stronger effect melt any other metal.
Gallium arsenide, a promising semiconductor. With his help create LEDs and lasers in the UV and blue range. The gallium is an expensive metal. It pounds in 2010, worth nearly 1.5 thousand dollars. Gallium is not only an excellent lubricant, based on it is also created by metal clay.
RentalAlloys of this metal rolled: bars, rods, wire, sheets, etc. Methods for the determination of elements in alloys are described. For example, tin is GOST 13 637.5−93, . For iron GOST 13 637.4−93, Gallium. For selenium GOST 13 637.6−93, Gallium. For sulphur GOST 13 637.7−93, . For tellurium GOST 13 637.8−93, Gallium. For phosphorus GOST 13 637.9−93, Gallium. GOST 12 697.13−90 regulates the determination of the gallium.
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