Stainless steel is a complex alloy steel
Stainless steel is a complex alloy, the alloy not only resistant to corrosion under the action of high humidity, but also in aggressive environments. In the early twentieth century, Harry Brearley (Brearley), experimenting with different metals and found the ability of alloys of iron with chromium to resist acid corrosion. The higher the percentage of chromium in steel, the higher corrosion resistance. Under normal atmospheric conditions and in a slightly aggressive media, the alloy is stainless steel if the chromium content in it is 12%. For durability in more aggressive environments, for example, in a 50% nitric acid, chromium in the alloy should be more than 17%. Together with chrome steel typically contains elements such as Si, C, Mn and in thousandths of a percent sulfur and phosphorus. To impart special properties to the composition also introduced elements such as Ni, Ti, Mn, Nb, Mo, Co. The reason for the corrosion resistance in that the surface of steel parts formed micron film is very stable oxides. Great importance is the surface condition of the material, the absence of internal stresses and crystalline defects. In concentrated inorganic acids are used alloys with a high content of Ni and additives of molybdenum, copper and silicon.
stainless steel by chemical composition can be chromium, chromium-Nickel and grammargestapo-Nickel (over 100 stamps); the structure is martensitic, and ferritic properities. The best indicators of resistance are chromium stainless steels of the martensitic type in a polished form. Chromium stainless steel is used as structural material for the manufacture of valves for hydraulic presses, turbine blades, valves for cracking plants, cutting tools, springs, household goods. Bromomalonate and chromium-Nickel stainless steels are divided into austenitic, austenitic-ferritic, austenitic-carbide and austenite-martensite.
There are austenitic stainless steels that are prone to intergranular corrosion, and stabilized austenitic stainless steel with added Ti and Nb. To reduce the tendency of steel to intergranular corrosion can decrease the carbon content to 0.03%. Stabilized austenitic stainless steels are indispensable for the manufacture of parts welded reinforcement in corrosive environments. After welding, eliminating the need for heat treatment. As heat-resistant and heat-resistant material these steels are used for products exposed to temperatures from 550 to 800 °C. the Steels are prone to intergranular corrosion after welding the existing rules are subjected to heat treatment. Heat treatment is not necessary if parts are welded with spot or roller welding.
As chromium-Nickel, and chromomagnetic-Nickel stainless steels have found wide application in industrial production and in everyday life. For heavy elements, complex designs working at high temperatures (up to 550°C) justifiably apply Maraging steel austenitic-martensitic type, which have substantial strength (sb = 120−150 kgf/mm2), good weldability and relatively high viscosity. Such steel can be supplied in a deformed or as-cast.
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