Annealing, quenching and heat treatment of high speed steel
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Requirements for heat treatment of these steels
The standard provides for a certain level of initial requirements for the rental of high-speed steels. In particular, the hardness of steel in the annealed state, the hardness of the samples after hardening and tempering, the tempering temperature and tempering should correspond to the values indicated in the table:
|steel grade||Hardness||Temperature, ° С|
|After annealing||After quenching with tempering, HRC (HRCe), no less than||Quenching||Vacations|
|НВ, not more than||Diameter of print, mm, not less than|
Permissible deviations from the given temperatures should not exceed ± 10 ° С.
At the request of the consumer, the steel grades P12F3, P9K5, P6M5F3, P6M5K5 are manufactured with a hardness not exceeding 255 HB (the diameter of the print is not less than 3.8 mm), steel R18K5F2, P9M4K8 — with a hardness not exceeding 269 HB (diameter of the print not less than 3, 7 mm). In the macrostructure of steel are not allowed: the plaque, splitting, bubbles, inclusions and cracks. Defects of a macrostructure that do not exceed the values indicated in the table are allowed.
|Defect type||Diameter or thickness of metal products, mm||Score in points, not more, for groups|
|Subsequent liquation||All sizes||1||1|
|Central porosity||Up to 80||-||1|
|St. 80 to 150||1||2|
|Point-spotted heterogeneity||Up to 50||-||1|
|Holy 50 to 80||-||2|
Carbide heterogeneity should not exceed the values given in the table
|Diameter of a circle or side of a square, mm||Score in points, not more, for groups|
|Up to 20||-||2|
|St. 20 to 40||-||3|
Carbide heterogeneity of the strip should correspond to the carbide inhomogeneity of a square profile with an equal cross-sectional area.
In bars with special finishing of the surface of marks Р6М5, Р6М5Ф3, 11Р3АМ3Ф2, Р9К5, Р6М5К5, Р2АМ9К5 accumulations of «angular» carbides are not allowed. Single «angular» carbides that occur in separate fields of view are allowed.
The norms of Group I are provided by electroslag remelting.
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Checking the level of carbide heterogeneity of the microstructure of high-speed steels after their heat treatment
Hardness after hardening and tempering is determined according to GOST 9013−59 on samples taken from the finished profile. The inspection is carried out on a plane perpendicular to the drawing direction. The number of prints on each sample must be at least three. Cooling of the samples after quenching is carried out in oil. The samples are dispensed two, three times, with an exposure of 1 h and cooling in air.
The grain size of the austenite of the steel after quenching should correspond to that indicated in the table:
|Diameter or thickness of metal products, mm||The austenite grain size is not larger than the number|
|By the Sneider-Graff method||on a scale|
|Up to 50||13||10|
DESCRIPTION OF STANDARDS OF SCALES OF CARBIDE INHOMOGENEITY OF FAST STEEL STEEL
|Score||Description of distribution
|Permissible width of strips or carbide accumulations, mm|
|In high-strength steels (estimated
On the scale of N 1)
|In low-tungsten and tungsten-molybdenum steels (with an estimate|
On the scale of N 2)
|1||Thin banded structure with short broken strips||2||1|
|2||Strip structure, single or multiple band distributions. Carbides inside strips, crushed||4||2|
|3||A. Banded structure, single or multiple bands. Carbides inside strips, crushed||6th||4|
|B. Remains of a torn carbide mesh. Grid with crushed carbides||6th||4|
|4||A. Banded structure. Single or multiple bands. Carbides inside strips, crushed||8||5|
|B. Slightly torn mesh with clusters||8||5|
|5||A. Rough-band structure, single or multiple bands||13||6th|
|B. Explicitly expressed ruptured grid with clusters||13||6th|
|6th||A. Rough-band structure, single or multiple bands||15||9|
|B. An explicitly broken mesh with the presence of undisturbed cluster cells||15||9|
|7th||Grid torn in separate places and clusters||20||14|
|8||Maloformed tear and mesh||25||18|
For the strip, a cluster of carbides is taken, whose length is greater than or equal to 5 times the width. Two adjacent bands are taken as one, if the distance between them is less than the width of the narrower band.
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