Brass single-phase and two-phase. Their type, composition, technological and mechanical properties, application.
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The structure of brass
As the alloy of copper and zinc brass the structure includes a solid solution of copper in zinc, and the boundary concentration of the latter can not be above 39%. State diagram «copper-zinc» is characterized in that when exceeding the specified rate leads to the formation of CuZn intermetallic compounds, accompanied by a sharp decrease in the ductility of the alloy. Such brass is called β-phase, and have a body-centred cubic lattice.
With decreasing the percentage of zinc to 30% in the alloy structure appears in the α-solid solution, causing the brass becomes more pliable; at the same time is slightly increased and the hardness of the alloy. Thus, almost used brand of brass can be single-phase, containing only α-solid solution, two-phase and that the structure of α+β.
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Properties of one — and two-phase brass
Single-phase brass is highly plastic, and therefore lend themselves well to plastic deformation even at room temperatures. Remain in force the same structural changes, which are characteristic for the steel increases the hardness and grain size with increasing degree of deformation decrease. If use of finished products is desirable, after forming perform recrystallization annealing at a temperature of 650 to 7000 C, in which the plasticity is restored.
With the increase in the percentage content of zinc improved machining and wear resistance of single-phase brass, but at the same time deteriorating their electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity.
Two-phase brass is mostly processed by the technologies of hot plastic deformation, and to improve the machinability in the composition of the brass is further added lead. Lead also has a positive effect on the ability of alloys to withstand frictional wear. For cold plastic deformation require prior annealing.
Conventional two-phase brass have good fluidity, but when you fill in the forms form a large shrinkage of the shell, so the composition additionally alloyed with iron and aluminum. The addition of silicon and Nickel increases the resistance of these alloys in seawater.
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