Annealing, hardening and heat treatment alloy tool steel
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Types of annealing
An annealing is used to obtain the equilibrium structure of instrumental alloy steels. There are the following varieties of this operation:
- Recrystallization annealing, as a result of which the hardening obtained during cold deformation is removed. Recrystallization annealing of the steels under consideration is carried out at temperatures of 720… 770 0 С;
- Full annealing, which removes internal stresses and corrects the initial structure of steels, which becomes fine-grained. Heating is performed up to temperatures of 780… 8500С. After that, the steel is kept until it is fully warmed up, and slowly cooled to 500… 600 0 С. The further cooling rate can be any;
- Incomplete annealing — used to prepare the product for subsequent hardening, and to reduce hardness. The temperature of this annealing should correspond to the temperature range of perlite transformation into austenite;
- Annealing on granular perlite is used to reduce the hardness and increase the machinability of tool carbon steels. This annealing has a cyclic character: periodically the temperature of heating varies from 680… 690 0 С to 730… 740 0 С. Cooling of products is carried out together with the furnace;
- Isothermal annealing, which is similar to the full, but proceeds at an increased rate. Alloyed tool steels are annealed at temperatures of 700… 7500С, at a final hardness of 200… 250 НВ;
- Diffusion annealing. It is necessary to obtain a homogeneous structure in large hammer dies.
Cooling of alloyed tool steels after annealing can be performed in two schemes. The first is first cooled with the furnace at reduced speeds, and then — in the air. The second scheme includes isothermal aging, cooling with an oven, and further — in calm air.
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Tempering modes depend on the chemical composition of instrumental alloy steels, the level of its physical and mechanical properties and the configuration of the product. Distinguish:
- Full hardening, at which heating occurs above the austenitic transformation temperature. Depending on the rate of cooling, the structure of the steel can be martensitic-austenitic, or — at reduced temperatures — be sorbitol and troostite quenched;
- Isothermal quenching, by which, the steel is heated somewhat above normal temperatures, and is cooled in oil or salt melts until complete breakdown of the austenite. At the same time, residual stresses and warping of a complex tool are reduced;
- With stepwise hardening, the transformation of austenite into martensite is the result of alternate cooling / heating in the zone of austenite-pearlite transformation. Cooling is performed in a hot environment, and only then — in the air.
To improve the quality of tempering it should be carried out in furnaces with a controlled atmosphere. After tempering, a holiday is made, during which internal stresses are eliminated. The hardness is somewhat reduced, but the fragility of the steels under consideration is also reduced.
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